UPR Sexual Rights Database

Search & Filters

Select one or more parameters to begin your search. You may also search by keyword at any time.

UN Member State that is reviewed on its human rights record as part of the UPR process.

Categories of the types of information used during reviews

Show advanced filters
Source of Reference

Recommending State

UN Member State or Permanent Observer making sexual rights related recommendations, comments or asking questions to the State under Review.

Review Documentation

Sources of information used as the basis for a State’s review.  Includes the State’s National Report, UN Compilation Report and a Stakeholder Summary.

UN Regional Group to which State under Review belongs.

UN Regional Group to which Recommending State belongs.

This will only match recommendations where the Source of Review is a State.

Implementation notes

State responses to recommendations and issues raised in the UN Compilation and Stakeholder summary.

Displaying 41151 - 41175 of 41470 recommendations found
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Spain

    Spain
    Regional group
    WEOG
    Political group
    EU
    OEI
    Issue:
    • Harmful practices based on cultural / traditional values
    • Gender equality
    • Women's and / or girls' rights
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Rejected
    Contents:
    Harmonize traditional and legal regulations regarding the protection of women as well as the elimination of all exceptions based in traditional practices, to the principle of non-discrimination of article 23 of the Constitution.
    Explanation
    The relationship between customary law and the rights of women has been the subject of discussions during the on-going constitutional reform process. All stakeholders are generally agreed that all persons should have the same rights without any discrimination. Consequently, the draft constitution has proposed to completely eliminate all forms of discriminations including under personal law that is provided for under article 23 of the current Constitution of Zambia.

    In addition, the Zambia Law Development Commission embarked on a project to regulate the area of customary law relating to marriage. It was recognised that the area of traditional marriage was fertile ground for discrimination against women and children, because of the different approaches by different ethnic groups in contracting as well as dissolving them. This fluidity meant that marriages were influenced by whether an ethnic group was matrilineal, patrilineal or bilateral. The lack of uniformity was a major factor in the failure by customary law to protect parties to these marriages, in particular women.

    The aim of the project was to draw common threads that run through the procedure for contracting customary marriage, as well as harmonizing different formalities in order to provide a uniform code across the country. This involved an audit of practices of the major ethnic groups, which would inform the form and content of a statute to regulate customary marriages. The area of intestate succession was also identified as a factor for the perpetuation of discrimination, hence a review of the Intestate Succession Act (Chapter 59 of the laws of Zambia) was embarked upon. The aim of the review was to assess how the law had cured previous defects under customary law in the area of succession. Changes are expected to be made soon.
    Implementation
    UN Compilation:
    Para 57) The United Nations country team stated that the unsuccessful referendum, which had resulted in the proposed Bill of Rights not being adopted, had created some legal and constitutional inconsistencies due to the fact that the 1996 Bill of Rights remained in force. One such inconsistency resulted from article 23 of the 1996 Bill of Rights, which allowed for discrimination against women in matters of adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death and other matters of personal law. Such discrimination generally occurred as a result of the application of traditional or customary practices or law. The continued existence of that derogation under article 23 was in direct conflict with article 1 (1) of the Constitution, which provided that the Constitution took precedence over all other written laws, customary laws and customary practices and rendered them void to the extent of the inconsistency. Arguably, application of article 23 could be tested through the Constitutional Court against article 1 (1) and its applicability nullified. However, because the Bill of Rights was embedded and could be amended only through national referendum, the wording of article 23 itself would remain extant until the revised Bill of Rights was adopted by a future referendum.

    Stakeholder Summary:
    Para 67) JS5 stated that the position of women remained subordinate to that of their male counterparts, mainly as a result of conservative interpretations of religion, patriarchy and gender stereotypes and norms, which is bolstered through the dual legal system and in particular the application of customary laws most of which institutionalize patriarchal views of the role of women in the family. In particular, customary law and practice on marriages, divorce and inheritance, fail to adequately protect women and ensure that their rights to non-discrimination and equality are realized.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Netherlands

    Netherlands
    Regional group
    WEOG
    Political group
    EU
    Issue:
    • Sexual abuse
    • Sex work / "prostitution"
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    2nd session, May 2008
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Noted concerns by CRC on the number of children living and working on the street, particularly their exposure to physical and sexual abuse, prostitution and HIV/AIDS and recommended that a strategy be developed for the prevention and assistance to children living and working on the street in order to protect and guarantee their rights, involving community-based associations and other civil society organizations.
    Implementation
    National Report:
    Para 30) ... To this end, the Government has implemented measures to ensure a gradual reduction in the levels of poverty and the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. Government has put in place decisive and systematic measures aimed at implementing policies and programmes through the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health and the Ministry of Health, among others.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    National Report

    Issue:
    • International human rights instruments
    • Trafficking in women and / or girls
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    N/A
    Contents:
    ... Parliament enacted the Anti- Human Trafficking Act No. 11 of 2008. The Act makes provision for the prohibition, prevention and prosecution of offences relating to human trafficking. It is the most comprehensive law in the fight against human trafficking and it domesticates the Palermo Protocol. [Para 13]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    UN Compilation

    Issue:
    • Sexual abuse
    • Sexual violence
    • Women's and / or girls' rights
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Neglected
    Contents:
    The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended that additional amendments to the Penal Code be considered including review of the definition of rape; introduction of aggravating circumstances for the crime of rape, such as when it is committed within intimate relations; review of the definition of defilement, age of the child in defilement offences; exceptions for marriages under 16 years of age; review of the category of relatives who may be considered as committing incest to include extended family members who take care of children. [Para 24]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    UN Compilation

    Issue:
    • Violence against women / gender-based violence
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Neglected
    Contents:
    The Special Rapporteur on violence against women recommended that the Ministry of Education, should, as a matter of urgency, develop and adopt regulations to prevent and protect schoolgirls from violence as well as put in place frameworks and systems for effective implementation of such regulations. [Para 65]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Stakeholder Summary

    Issue:
    • Intersex persons' rights
    • Rights of same-sex desiring persons
    • Transgender persons' rights
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Neglected
    Contents:
    CHRI made recommendations which included ... the facilitation of constructive dialogue on LGBTI rights with stakeholders, including government ministries, civil society actors, religious leaders and the Zambian Human Rights Commission. [Para 36]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    National Report

    Issue:
    • Gender equality
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    2nd session, May 2008
    Status:
    N/A
    Contents:
    Zambia acknowledges that there are more boys than girls accessing education and training. However, there has been an increase in the gross enrolment ratio for girls and the country is now close to reaching gender parity in grades 1 to 7 with girls representing 49 per cent of total enrolment. [Para 70]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Stakeholder Summary

    Issue:
    • Women's and / or girls' rights
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    2nd session, May 2008
    Status:
    Reference Addressed
    Contents:
    ... HRW urged the Zambian government to ensure better enforcement of the Intestate Succession Act. [Para 5]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Honduras

    Honduras
    Regional group
    GRULAC
    Political group
    OAS
    OEI
    ACS
    Issue:
    • Intersex persons' rights
    • Discrimination based on sexual orientation
    • Discrimination based on gender identity
    • Rights of same-sex desiring persons
    • Transgender persons' rights
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Unclear Response
    Contents:
    Adopt legislation that combats discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and protects the rights of LGBT people.
    Explanation
    Noted.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Chile

    Chile
    Regional group
    GRULAC
    Political group
    OAS
    OEI
    Issue:
    • Violence against women / gender-based violence
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Continue to adopt effective measures to prevent and eradicate violence against women, children and adolescents and provide protection and assistance to the victims.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    China

    China
    Regional group
    Asia-Pacific Group
    Issue:
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Continue to develop its health care undertakings and further strengthen its work on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Togo

    Togo
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    OIC
    OIF
    Issue:
    • International human rights instruments
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (OP-CRC-SC).
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Tunisia

    Tunisia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    OIC
    AL
    OIF
    Issue:
    • Early marriage
    • Harmful practices based on cultural / traditional values
    • Sexual exploitation / slavery
    • Trafficking in women and / or girls
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Continue efforts to consolidate the rights of the child, protecting from sexual exploitation and to combat trafficking in children and combat child marriage.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Stakeholder Summary

    Issue:
    • Criminal laws on same-sex sexual practices
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Reference Addressed
    Contents:
    RFSU made recommendation including the decriminalization of same-sex relations between consenting adults. [Para 33]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Stakeholder Summary

    Issue:
    • Discrimination based on gender identity
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    28th Session November 2017
    Status:
    Not Followed up with a Recommendation
    Contents:
    PAI called for an amendment of the Constitution to include gender-identity as a ground for discrimination.[Para 26]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Slovakia

    Slovakia
    Regional group
    EEG
    Political group
    EU
    Issue:
    • Sexual abuse
    • Sexual exploitation / slavery
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Adopt and implement appropriate measures to address the sexual abuse and exploitation of children ...
    Implementation
    UN Compilation:
    Para 34) CRC was concerned at the increase in the number of children, especially girls and children in a disadvantaged situation, who were victims of commercial exploitation, including prostitution.

    Stakeholder Summary:
    Para 72) JS3 stated that children who were victims of sexual abuse were not given rehabilitation or compensation and recommended enacting a rehabilitation and compensations policy, pursuant to article 39 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Egypt

    Egypt
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    OIC
    AL
    OIF
    Issue:
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Accepted
    Contents:
    Carry on with ensuring the reduction of HIV prevalence in Zambia.
    Implementation
    National Report:
    Para 54) Zambia has in place a Revised National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (R-NASF) 2014–2016 which guides efforts to combat HIV. Recently, Zambia launched a campaign for routine HIV testing, counselling and treatment in all public health institutions in response to the Government's agenda of ending HIV by 2030.
    Para 55) The Ministry of Health developed a National Health Strategic Plan (2011–2015) which includes efforts to combat various ailments including HIV/AIDS. The Government has also continued to support the operations of the National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Council.
    Para 56) Zambia also carries out HIV awareness and education, particularly among young people. The awareness raising is aimed at encouraging people to have voluntary testing on their HIV status and receive appropriate counselling.

    UN Compilation:
    Para 14) The Special Rapporteur on the rights of persons with disabilities noted that discrimination based on HIV/AIDS status was widespread in Zambia.
    Para 48) [CRC] expressed concern at the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among children, particularly adolescents, and at the fact that girls might be particularly susceptible to infection owing to the belief that intercourse with a virgin cured infection and due to the persistence of unequal power relations between men and women, which might hamper the ability of women and girls to negotiate safe sexual practices.
    Para 55) UNESCO stated that education on HIV and AIDS had been integrated in the curriculum with a focus on knowledge-driven interventions under the broad framework of life and survival skills.

    Stakeholder Summary:
    Para 29) JS5 stated that the national health and HIV policies and strategies did not have a clear definition of key populations. This may lead to some vulnerable groups falling through the cracks and not receiving the necessary HIV programming. Also, the absence of a clear definition of key populations may inhibit Government accountability.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Brazil

    Brazil
    Regional group
    GRULAC
    Political group
    OAS
    OEI
    Issue:
    • International human rights instruments
    • Gender equality
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    No Response
    Contents:
    Consider ratifying OP-CEDAW.
    Explanation
    Zambia remains committed to ratifying all human rights instruments and a process of internal consultations have already started as part of this process. Zambia is also currently in the process of carrying out a mapping exercise of all human rights treaties to which Zambia is party with a view of domesticating the same.
    Implementation
    National Report:
    Para 111) Zambia has not ratified OP-CEDAW.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Norway

    Norway
    Regional group
    WEOG
    Issue:
    • Marital rape
    • Violence against women / gender-based violence
    • Domestic violence
    • Sexual violence
    Type:
    Recommendation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Rejected
    Contents:
    Adopt concrete measures to address violence against women, including by criminalizing marital rape and increasing public awareness of the problem, with a particular focus on religious and community leaders.
    Explanation
    As regards the recommendation on criminalizing marital rape, the delegation stated that Zambia was not aware that marital rape was a problem. However, the Government expressed its willingness to consult widely on the effect of enacting a law criminalizing marital rape with particular emphasis on the possible adverse repercussions on the traditional cohesion of the family. The delegation added that Zambia has enacted comprehensive Anti-Gender based violence legislation that enhances the rights of women with regards to gender based violence of all forms. The Government welcomed constructive debate on this issue.
    Implementation
    National Report:
    Para 77) Awareness of the rights provided under CEDAW has been enhanced though the enactment of Gender Equity and Equality Act No. 22 of 2015 to empower women and achieve gender equity and equality by giving effect to the CEDAW. The Government of the Republic of Zambia, in conjunction with the Civil Society Organizations undertook a number of awareness campaigns on the principles of CEDAW. The sensitisation programmes included routine planned activities under the Sixth and the Revised Sixth National Development Plan; consultation during the Mapping of Legislation on the CEDAW which culminated into the Gender Equity and Equality Act No. 22 of 2015. Other or programme based events such as “He for She campaign”; the 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence; and establishment of shelters for survivors of GBV contributed towards raising awareness on GBV to the general public.
    Para 79) Cooperating Partners supported the Ministry of Gender in implementing the “He for She” campaign through a Boys to Men Project, which aims at encouraging men and boys to be active participants in the fights against GBV. Para 80) Cooperating Partners have supported Zambia financially in developing and strengthening support systems that ensure survivors of violence are treated with dignity and respect and have access to the justice they deserve.
    Para 81) There has also been capacity building and sensitisation amongst members of Law Enforcement Agencies.
    Para 119) Among the noted recommendations, there has been no immediate action that Zambia has taken on the following: ... (b) Recognize marital rape as a criminal offence.

    Stakeholder Summary:
    Para 36) RFSU stated that the legislation and policies that were in place to address sexual, domestic and gender-based violence were insufficient... .
    Para 69) JS5 referred to the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act and the Rape Act and stated that marital rape was not criminalized. ... JS3 stated that the shelters for victims of gender-based violence as provided for in the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act were yet to be constructed and that the fund for victims was yet to be established.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    UN Compilation

    Issue:
    • Gender equality
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Reference Addressed
    Contents:
    CEDAW recommended that Zambia strengthen the Human Rights Commission of Zambia and its Gender Equality Committee by providing adequate visibility, power and human and financial resources at all levels. [Para 10]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    UN Compilation

    Issue:
    • Women's and / or girls' rights
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Neglected
    Contents:
    Concerned by poverty, illiteracy, difficulties in accessing health and social services of women in rural and remote areas, CEDAW called upon Zambia to increase and strengthen women's participation in designing and implementing local development plans; pay special attention to the needs of rural women, particularly those women who were heads of their households, by ensuring their participation in decision-making processes and improving their access to health, education, clean water, sanitation services, land and income-generating projects; and etablish a legislative framework to protect women's rights to inheritance and ownership of land. In 2012, the Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights noted that women continued to be denied the right to land ownership, especially under customary law; and urged the Government to take action on this issue. [Para 49]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Stakeholder Summary

    Issue:
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Neglected
    Contents:
    ... UOCL-IHRC made recommendations including the distribution of condoms in prison to reduce the transmission of HIV/AIDS ... [Para 25]
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Hungary

    Hungary
    Regional group
    EEG
    Political group
    EU
    Issue:
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Question
    Session:
    14th session, November 2012
    Status:
    Not Followed up with a Recommendation
    Contents:
    Hungary is pleased to learn that Zambia has identified the necessity of addressing the negative impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic as one of its key priorities in the years to come. In this respect, could the Delegation provide some more information on the National Adolescence Health Strategy Plan for 2011-2015 and on the programmes that have been put in place to promote prevention of sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    Chile

    Chile
    Regional group
    GRULAC
    Political group
    OAS
    OEI
    Issue:
    • Gender equality
    Type:
    Question
    Session:
    2nd session, May 2008
    Status:
    Not Followed up with a Recommendation
    Contents:
    Asked whether an evaluation of the strategic action plan on gender had been made.
  • State Under Review:

    Zambia

    Zambia
    Regional group
    Africa Group
    Political group
    AU
    Commonwealth
    Source Of Reference:

    UN Compilation

    Issue:
    • Early marriage
    • Harmful practices based on cultural / traditional values
    • Women's and / or girls' rights
    • HIV and AIDS
    Type:
    Review Documentation
    Session:
    2nd session, May 2008
    Status:
    Reference Addressed
    Contents:
    In 2005, CESCR expressed concern about the large number of widows and orphans, a situation further exacerbated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic and about the harsh living conditions of widows and girl orphans due to, among other things, harmful traditional practices such as "widow-cleansing", early marriages and denial of inheritance. CESCR recommended that Zambia take measures to improve their situation. [Para 17]